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Motion controllers provide three primary functions:

Profile Generator
The Profile Generator is responsible for performing all the calculations required for the motion trajectory given information about the mode of operation (velocity, gearing, incremental indexing, or absolute positioning). Some profile generators pre-calculate the move while others do it on-the-fly. The output of the profile generator is the position command that drives the position loop closure.

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Position Loop Servo Closure
Servo control is the regulation of desired motor shaft position and the position of a motor-based feedback signal. The position loop produces a velocity command in order to minimize the error between position command and position feedback. Gain and bandwidth are usually adjustable through a PID compensator filter. In some system architecture (i.e., SERCOS Interface), the loop closure is part of the drive instead of the motion controller.

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I/O Control and Drive Interface
Discrete Inputs to the motion controller command motion or auxiliary functions. Discrete outputs from the motion controller handshake event completion. Parameter setting and reads are usually accomplished through serial data communications or DMA access and can take multiple forms, but are lumped as MMI (Man-Machine-Interface) or HMI (Human-Machine-Interface). The motion controller outputs a velocity (or torque) command to the drive and often controls drive enable.

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More about Drive Interfaces.......
More about MMI or HMI......
More about Controlling Current.......  

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